Efectos del componente arbóreo (Gliricidia sepium y Erythrina berteroana) sobre características físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo bajo un sistema silvopastoril asociado a Brachiaria brizantha CIAT 26110 CV. Toledo en la zona húmeda baja de Costa Rica
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Silvopastoral systems, including the proper use of tree species, especially the family Leguminaceae as enabling elements of an integrated system (grass-tree-animal), where trees trigger the cycling and pump of nutrients in the soil, add organic matter and can improve forage production and species population of macro-and micro-organisms involved in the dynamics of nutrient cycling, are considered as an alternative for the sustainable development of tropical farming systems. This work was conducted in order to evaluate some physicochemical characteristics in the soil, the earthworm population density, production and nutritional value of forage produced where three production systems were evaluated T1 (Gliricidia sepium associated Brachiaria brizantha CV Toledo CIAT 26110), T2 (Erythrina berteroana associated with Brachiaria brizantha CV Toledo CIAT 26110) and T3 (Brachiaria brizantha CV Toledo brizantha CIAT 26110 as a monoculture). The research was developed in the farm of Mr. Ronald Meléndez, located in Los Angeles, San Isidro district, Canton of San Ramon, Alajuela Province. Under the conditions this work was developed, no differences were found in the soil for pH values (5.53, 5.50 and 5.60 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively), however, differences were found for the percentage of organic matter (1.23, 1.70 and 1.20, for T1, T2 and T3, respectively) and the number of worms in the soil (215, 314 and 263 m2 worms, for T1, T2 and T3 respectively). With respect to dry matter production of Brachiaria brizantha, no differences were found among treatments, being the production statistically similar in any of the systems studied (average 33 t ha-1 yr-1 in cuts every 30 days). Biomass production of tree components was evaluated only in Erythrina berteroana as Gliricidia sepium did not survive the system. The biomass production was berteroana Erythrina 2724 kg DM ha-1 yr-1 with cuts every six months. For the nutritional value of forage component of Brachiaria brizantha, no significant differences between treatments (average of 10.40% CP, 33% FAD, 56% NDF). Changes are evident when comparing the values of soil organic matter, earthworm population density and total biomass production (grasses and trees) obtained at the end of the experimental period versus what was reported before establishing the treatments. It confirms a large increase of these variables, so it can be concluded in general that the change of land use under a monoculture pasture grass Ratana (Ischaemun indicum) silvopastoral systems (Erythrina berteroana - Brachiaria brizantha; Gliricidia sepium - Brachiaria brizantha) and / or improved pasture (Brachiaria brizantha) represents a very positive change to improve the production of biomass and some physical and chemical conditions of the soil.