Estrategia para mejorar la agricultura de secano en la microcuenca del Río Torjá, Chiquimula, Guatemala
Chicas-Soto, Rodolfo Augusto
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The rural area of Guatemala, mostly displayed by subsistence farming on land with steep slopes, of low fertility, with degraded soils, which have unsuitable for the development of sustainable agriculture physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The semiarid region in eastern Guatemala, mainly rural area, characterized by the scarcity of water resources where the amount and distribution of rainfall in the winter time is affecting, it is insufficient to ensure the production of agriculture rainfed. There are several factors that influence both internal and external, in the constant losses suffered rainfed agriculture in the region. For this reason in this investigation a characterization of the micro basin with the firm intention of knowing the context in which this type of agriculture is carried out is done. Additionally disclosed the methodology for the vulnerability model of rainfed agriculture in the micro basin of río Torjá, considering socioeconomic, environmental and soil variables that after defining indicators, is successful existing vulnerability in the micro basin. Considering the existing constraints in the area that do not allow the development of sustainable agriculture, a logistic model to determine the probability of crop failure in rainfed agriculture in the micro basin of río Torjá, Chiquimula, Guatemala is proposed. The basic information was collected through fieldwork in 57 plots in the study area. These plots were transformed to map units that were plotted on the map scale of 1: 100000 Loss harvest micro Torjá river basin, to establish the status of crop loss partially or completely. The computer program module 2013.4 XLSTAT logistic regression was used to establish the probability of occurrence of loss depending on variables of social, environmental and edaphic character with a significance level of 5%, R2 of 0.70 and Nagelkerke Hosmer-Lemeshow test not significant. It is concluded that the variables that explain the loss of harvest are the intensity of land use, altitude and rainfall. This research consider it important to propose a statistical model to estimate indirectly field capacity and wilting point, to determine the capacity of moisture retention in the soil for agricultural purposes. They were taken as basis physiographic units 57 micro basin identifying sites where soil samples were performed. Were defined as dependent variables field capacity (CC) and wilting point (PMP) and as independent variables, the% clay, % silt,% sand, bulk density (Da), electrical conductivity (EC) and the organic matter (OM). They were established relations between these variables using multiple linear regression models generating constant moisture. The models were validated by taking ten samples randomly in the study area, obtaining a high Pearson correlation between observed and estimated values from the bulk density and% sand, values being 0.84 for the model field capacity and 0.85 for the permanent wilting point. With the information obtained we proceeded to make a proposal to improve rainfed agriculture in the micro basin of Rio Torjá, which involves a series of actions to be implemented in the medium term, to counteract the degradation of micro basin and rescue productivity of the soil, so it requires constant communication between municipal authorities, non-governmental organizations present in the area and the community in order to publicize the benefits to be gained when developing each the actions proposed.