Análisis de corto circuito y coordinación de protecciones en la red eléctrica de la planta de producción de VITEC PRODUCTION SOLUTIONS
Cabrera-Quiros, Luis Diego
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VITEC PRODUCTION SOLUTIONS focuses its operations on the manufacture of profesional equipment for the film, photographic, aerospace and government industries. They are responsible for designing, manufacturing and distributing high perfomance products and solutions that include camera holders, electronic accessories mounted on cameras, robotic camera systems, indicators, mobile Powers and transport equipment. This summary presents the development of the project, which seeks to improve the management of the information of the electrical network and provide security to both the operating equipments and the people who work in the company, by means of a short circuit analysis and protections coordination. The methodology used progressed in the following way. First, a compilation of all the information related to the electrical network is elaborated: connected loads, conductors, piping system, generalities of the quality of the energy, description of the equipment, transformers and boards. Then, we proceeded to an adequate ordering of the information collected, to carry out the updated directories of the electrical panels, equipment with their respective loads and impedances, as well as the conductors. With the information gathered and ordered, the following was the development of the updated single-line diagram of the electrical network, in which all circuits were contemplated, be they lighting, electrical outlets, equipment, fire suppression system, among others. An updated single-line diagram opens the way to the short circuit analysis, since, with the information collected and the single-line diagram, we proceed to select the inductive equipment and simplify the single-line diagram to an impedance diagram, in order to find the currents of short circuits present in an eventual failure of this type, for this analysis use was made of ANSI / IEEE standards 141-1993 and ANSI / IEEE 551-2006, both for an adequate short circuit analysis and that dictate the necessary requirements and calculations in the development. To validate and compare the results obtained, SKM Power Tools V6.5 software was used, in this software the simulation was performed in five (5) critical points of the singleline diagram, points where it was necessary to pretend an electrical failure by calculating short-circuit currents upstream and downstream of them, is simulated with respect to the single line diagram and the information collected, the approximate and accurate values in the points were calculated using the Impedance Method, in order to compare with the experimental values and obtain an error percentage . Finally, a verification of the coordination of protections was carried out in five (5) critical points, to ensure that the protection devices can control or mitigate an eventual failure with respect to the short-circuit currents, avoiding, to guarantee the opening of the circuit and avoid serious damage to the electrical installation, this sectioning by priority the different branches of the electrical distribution. At the same time an economic analysis was carried out, focusing on the most critical equipment (CNC's), of the productive losses that affect the company for each hour that a CNC machine is not in operation due to a possible short circuit failure.
Proyecto Final de Graduación (Licenciatura en ingeniería en Mantenimiento Industrial) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Electromecánica, 2018.