Determinación de los requerimientos de agua para diferentes cultivos de la zona norte Cartago
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The present report consists in a study to determine the water requirements of some crops grown in the northern part of Cartago. The study area of the project covers 7 districts, 1 in the province of San José and 6 in the province of Cartago. The purpose of this project came from the need to evaluate the calculation techniques to determine the water requirements that rule the development process of the crops in the northern zone of Cartago as a proposal for the concession manual for the Dirección de Agua belonging to (MINAE); to implement the most appropriate calculation technique and demonstrate the benefits in an economic, environmental and social assessment, in an area that presents problems with hydric resources especially in the dry season or when occur climatic issues like El Niño o La Niña. To obtain these assessments at first, we evaluate the current technique what determines the water needs to deliver the endowments in irrigation; for this purpose, la Dirección de Agua uses a combination of the evapotranspiration methodology and the consumptive use by applying the Blaney and Criddle formula, printed in the concession manual of the Dirección de Agua (MINAE), in which unique calculation variable it’s the elevation over sea level where the crop is located. Subsequently the methodology of the manual was compared with other calculation methods to relate its parameters and established results. It was found FAO Penman-Monteith equation to find the evapotranspiration is the most adequate to replace the current calculation technique. The meteorological parameters to find the evapotranspiration in crops with FAO Penman-Monteith method were obtained from meteorological stations near the study area and the model farms, with very reliable historical data up to 30 years, suggested for this equation. The results of the water requirements for some of the crops in the study area were determined using the proposed technique, and it was decided to go to the farms and identify the soil texture and the infiltration rate, elementary data to corroborate that the Irrigation used in these farms does not produce runoff or loss percolation. The results obtained in all the cases for the zone dictated that the methodology used by the Dirección de Agua Manual distribute high concessions compared with the methodology proposed in this report. For example, on a hectare of crops on model farms, up to 10,000 liters of water could be saved and conserved, which could be used for other concessions and generate new income from the economic point of view. From this conclusion would generate awareness in the method of calculation of the endowment, the irrigation systems used and the water resource saving in the area.
Proyecto de Graduación (Licenciatura en Ingeniería Agrícola) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Agrícola, 2017.