Diseño de una metodología para la dirección de proyectos marítimo-portuarios de la Dirección de Infraestructura de la División Marítimo Portuaria del MOPT
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The present research has the superior purpose of proposing a mechanism to improve the management of maritime-port projects in the Infrastructure’s Department. This organization belongs to the Maritime Port Division of MOPT and has within its responsibilities to provide port infrastructure and coastal protection works to the user population or beneficiary in the coastal sectors of the country, in support of the national and international transport system of people and goods and the development of public works. In the background analysis of the current situation of project management, a continuous lack of resources and an excess in the duration of the projects were identified, both cases due to poor estimates of budgetary and planning. This despite the fact of were found to be evidence some good practices, although with little standardization, of ad hoc control processes and documentation and registration problems, together with a lack of prepared human resources. It was investigated management models used by other organizations, finding some coincidence in the presence of certain good practices and critical success factors, whose consideration resulted in a successful result. This served as a reference for establishing seventeen good practices and thirteen critical success factors to be included, explicitly or implicitly, in the proposed methodology. From the previous analysis, a methodology was designed in accordance with the deficiencies and improvement opportunities found. This methodology was structured in four main sections: a) Life Cycle, b) Interested, c) Processes and procedures and d) Tools. In the life cycle analysis, the stages were defined for both the product and the project. In the stakeholder analysis, the main stakeholders in each of the stages of the life cycle and their most important functions for the management of the project were defined. Subsequently, fifteen procedures were developed with their respective activity flow diagrams, managers and management support tools, all linked to five processes and in compliance with the project life cycle. The project management support tools mentioned above correspond to the last section of the methodological proposal, which were included as an appendix to this Final Graduation Project document, where all the corresponding templates are gathered. As a complement to the proposed methodology, a specific organizational structure was defined to manage the projects, considering the main function as contracting entity, related to the supervision of works and contracted facilities. In this supervision function, the daily on-site inspection activities are separated from the monitoring and control of the physical and financial progress of the contract, which has administrative rather than technical control nuances. Finally, a strategy was proposed to implement the use of the methodology, which involves certain activities of understanding the instruments created, a pilot plan with follow-up audits, a process of perfecting the tool and finally the extension of its use to all contracting of the Infrastructure Department. From the analysis carried out in this work, it is concluded that it is extremely necessary to make enormous efforts to standardize and institutionalize the project management processes, providing the necessary tools to the personnel, so that their work is facilitated, and a real control environment is fostered in the projects, where decisions are made in a timely manner and deviations from agreed initial planning are minimized.
Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Gerencia de Proyectos) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Área Académica de Gerencia de Proyectos, 2018.