Selección de un sistema de saneamiento para el manejo de aguas residuales en el asentamiento informal Bajo Los Anonos
Rueda-Morales, Máryeluz Gabriela
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Poor sanitation is a problem in informal settlements. Although some efforts have been done in Costa Rica to improve the quality of wastewater, these areas still have a lack of actual solutions. This research presents a sanitation systems selection appropriate for slums, considering economic, environmental, technical and social criteria. The study was developed in Bajo Los Anonos, an informal settlement located in San José. This was through a characterization of the place with surveys made to the inhabitants, sampling of wastewater and knowledge of the perspective of the city hall. In addition, through bibliographic review, suitable sanitation technologies were identified for their implementation in this sort of places. It was found that exists a total coverage in terms of potable water and electricity services in the settlement. Regarding black water treatment, 43% use septic tanks followed by 33% that have direct discharge in the river. Also, there is a very high risk of landslide due to an earthquake or the soil saturation by the rains. Using the selection method, it was obtained that the most suitable sanitation system for the community is the improved septic tank. Which presented clear advantages in the economic, environmental, and technical criteria. The systems located in second and third place showed greater advantages in terms of social criteria. These findings reflect that the selection of sanitation technologies is a process that includes many variables, which must be considered to guarantee the sustainability of a project.
Proyecto de Graduación (Licenciatura en Ingeniería Ambiental) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Ambiental, 2017.
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